Egyptian Religion > Egyptian Pantheon of Gods

Egyptian Pantheon of Gods

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration

Background

These gods and goddesses appear in virtually every aspect of ancient Egyptian civilization, and more than 1,500 of them are known by name. Many Egyptian texts mention deities' names without indicating their character or role, while other texts refer to specific deities without even stating their name, so a complete list of them is difficult to assemble.[2]

Pantheon of Gods

Ammit – goddess who devoured condemned souls[4]Amenhotep son of Hapu – A scribe and architect in the court of Amenhotep III, later deified for his wisdom[5]Am-heh – A dangerous underworld god[5]Amun – A creator god, patron deity of the city of Thebes, and the preeminent deity in Egypt during the New Kingdom[6]Amunet – Female counterpart of Amun and a member of the Ogdoad[3]Anat – A war and fertility goddess, originally from Syria, who entered Egyptian religion in the Middle Kingdom[7]Anhur – A god of war and hunting[8]Anput - A goddess of the dead and mummificationAnti – Falcon god, worshipped in Middle Egypt,[9] who appears in myth as a ferryman for greater gods[10]Anubis – god of embalming and protector of the dead[11]Anuket – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions, particularly the lower cataracts of the Nile[12]Apedemak – A warlike lion god from Nubia who appears in some Egyptian-built temples in Lower Nubia[13]Apep – A serpent deity who personified malevolent chaos and was said to fight Ra in the underworld every night[14]Apis – A live bull worshipped as a god at Memphis and seen as a manifestation of Ptah[15]Arensnuphis – A Nubian deity who appears in Egyptian temples in Lower Nubia in the Greco-Roman era[16]Ash – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt[17]Astarte – A warrior goddess from Syria and Canaan who entered Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[18]Aten – Sun disk deity who became the focus of the monolatrous or monotheistic Atenist belief system in the reign of Akhenaten[19]Atum – A creator god and solar deity, first god of the Ennead[20]Baal – Sky and storm god from Syria and Canaan, worshipped in Egypt during the New Kingdom[21]Ba'alat Gebal – A Caananite goddess, patroness of the city of Byblos, adopted into Egyptian religion[22]Babi – A baboon god characterized by sexuality and aggression[23]Banebdjedet – A ram god, patron of the city of Mendes[24]Ba-Pef – A little-known underworld deity[25]Bast – Goddess represented as a cat or lioness, patroness of the city of Bubastis, linked with protection from evil[26]Bat – Cow goddess from early in Egyptian history, eventually absorbed by Hathor[27]Bennu – A solar and creator deity, depicted as a bird[28]Bes – Apotropaic god, represented as a dwarf, particularly important in protecting children and women in childbirth[29]Buchis – A live bull god worshipped in the region around Thebes and a manifestation of Montu[30]Dedun – A Nubian god, said to provide the Egyptians with incense and other resources that came from Nubia[31]Geb – An earth god and member of the Ennead[32]Ha – A god of the Libyan Desert and oases west of Egypt[33]Hapi – Personification of the Nile flood[33]Hathor – One of the most important goddesses, linked with the sky, the sun, sexuality and motherhood, music and dance, foreign lands and goods, and the afterlife. One of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[34]Hatmehit – Fish goddess worshipped at Mendes[35]Hedetet – A minor scorpion goddess[36]Heh – Personification of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad[35]Heka – Personification of magic[37]Heket – Frog goddess said to protect women in childbirth[38]Heryshaf – Ram god worshipped at Herakleopolis Magna[39]Hesat – A maternal cow goddess[40]Horus – A major god, usually shown as a falcon or as a human child, linked with the sky, the sun, kingship, protection, and healing. Often said to be the son of Osiris and Isis.[41]Hu – Personification of the authority of the spoken word[42]Iah – A moon god[43]Iat – A goddess of milk and nursing[44]Ihy – A child deity born to Horus and Hathor, representing the music and joy produced by the sistrum[45]Imentet – An afterlife goddess closely linked with Isis and Hathor[46]Imhotep – Architect and vizier to Djoser, eventually deified as a healer god[47]Ishtar – The East Semitic version of Astarte, occasionally mentioned in Egyptian texts[48]Isis – Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus, linked with funerary rites, motherhood, protection, and magic. She became a major deity in Greek and Roman religion.[49]Iusaaset – A female counterpart to Atum[50]Kek - The God of Chaos and Darkness, as well as being the concept of primordial darkness. Kek's female form is known as Kauket.Khepri – A solar creator god, often treated as the morning form of Ra and represented by a scarab beetle[51]Kherty – A netherworld god, usually depicted as a ram[52]Khnum – A ram god, the patron deity of Elephantine, who was said to control the Nile flood and give life to gods and humans[53]Khonsu – A moon god, son of Amun and Mut[54]Maahes – A lion god, son of Bastet[55]Maat – goddess who personified truth, justice, and order[56]Mafdet – A predatory goddess said to destroy dangerous creatures[57]Mandulis – A Lower Nubian solar deity who appeared in some Egyptian temples[58]Mehit – A lioness goddess, consort of Anhur[59]Menhit – A lioness goddess[59]Mehen – A serpent god who protects the barque of Ra as it travels through the underworld[60]Mehet-Weret – A celestial cow goddess[60]Meretseger – A cobra goddess who oversaw the Theban Necropolis[61]Meskhenet – A goddess who presided over childbirth[62]Min – A god of virility, as well as the cities of Akhmim and Qift and the Eastern Desert beyond them[63]Mnevis – A live bull god worshipped at Heliopolis as a manifestation of Ra[64]Montu – A god of war and the sun, worshipped at Thebes[65]Mut – Consort of Amun, worshipped at Thebes[66]Nebethetepet – A female counterpart to Atum[67]Nefertum – god of the lotus blossom from which the sun god rose at the beginning of time. Son of Ptah and Sekhmet.[67]Nehebu-Kau – A protective serpent god[68]Nehmetawy – A minor goddess, the consort of Nehebu-Kau or Thoth[69]Neith – A creator and hunter goddess, patron of the city of Sais in Lower Egypt[70]Nekhbet – A vulture goddess, the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt[71]Neper – A god of grain[72]Nephthys – A member of the Ennead, the consort of Set, who mourned Osiris alongside Isis[73]Nu – Personification of the formless, watery disorder from which the world emerged at creation and a member of the Ogdoad[74]Nut – A sky goddess, a member of the Ennead[75]Osiris – god of death and resurrection who rules the underworld and enlivens vegetation, the sun god, and deceased souls[76]Pakhet – A lioness goddess mainly worshipped in the area around Beni Hasan[77]Ptah – A creator deity and god of craftsmen, the patron god of Memphis[78]Qetesh – A goddess of sexuality and sacred ecstasy from Syria and Canaan, adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[79]Ra – the foremost Egyptian sun god, involved in creation and the afterlife. Mythological ruler of the gods, father of every Egyptian king, and the patron god of Heliopolis.[80]Raet-Tawy – A female counterpart to Ra[81]Renenutet – An agricultural goddess[82]Reshep – A Syrian war god adopted into Egyptian religion in the New Kingdom[83]Renpet – goddess who personified the year[81]Satet – A goddess of Egypt's southern frontier regions[84]Seker – god of the Memphite Necropolis and of the afterlife in general[85]Sekhmet – A lioness goddess, both destructive and violent and capable of warding off disease. The consort of Ptah and one of many forms of the Eye of Ra.[86]Serapis – A Greco-Egyptian god from the Ptolemaic Period who fused traits of Osiris and Apis with those of several Greek gods. Husband of Isis who, like her, was adopted into Greek and Roman religion outside Egypt.[87]Serket – A scorpion goddess, invoked for healing and protection[88]Seshat – goddess of writing and record-keeping, depicted as a scribe[89]Set – An ambivalent god, characterized by violence, chaos, and strength, connected with the desert. Mythological murderer of Osiris and enemy of Horus, but also a supporter of the king.[90]Shai – Personification of fate[91]Shed – A god believed to save people from danger and misfortune[92]Shesmetet – A lioness goddess[92]Shezmu – A god of wine and oil presses who also slaughters condemned souls[93]Shu – embodiment of wind or air, a member of the Ennead[94]Sia – Personification of perception[95]Sobek – Crocodile god, worshipped in the Faiyum and at Kom Ombo[96]Sopdu – A god of the sky and of Egypt's eastern border regions[97]Sopdet – Deification of the star Sirius[98]Ta-Bitjet – A minor scorpion goddess[99]Tatenen – Personification of the first mound of earth to emerge from chaos in ancient Egyptian creation myths[99]Taweret – Hippopotamus goddess, protector of women in childbirth[100]Tefnut – Goddess of moisture and a member of the Ennead[101]TenenetThoth – A moon god, and a god of writing and scribes, and patron deity of Hermopolis[102]Tutu – An apotropaic god from the Greco-Roman era[103]Unut – A goddess represented as a snake or a hare, worshipped in the region of Hermopolis[104]Wadjet – A cobra goddess, the tutelary deity of Lower Egypt[105]Wadj-wer – Personification of the Mediterranean sea or lakes of the Nile Delta[106]Weneg – A son of Ra who maintains cosmic order[106]Wepwawet – A jackal god, the patron deity of Asyut, connected with warfare and the afterlife[107]Werethekau – A goddess who protected the king[108]Wosret – A minor goddess of Thebes[109]Yam – A Syrian god of the sea who appears in some Egyptian texts[110]
God NameGod Description
AkerA god of the earth and the horizon
God NameGod Description

Groups of Dieties

The Ennead

– An extended family of nine deities produced by Atum during the creation of the world. The Ennead usually consisted of Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut, and their children Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.[111]

Four Sons of Horus

– Four gods who protected the mummified body, particularly the internal organs in canopic jars.[112]

The Ogdoad

– A set of eight gods who personified the chaos that existed before creation. The Ogdoad commonly consisted of Amun, Amunet, Nu, Naunet, Heh, Hauhet, Kuk, and Kauket.[113]

Souls of Pe & Nekhen

The Souls of Pe and Nekhen – A set of gods personifying the predynastic rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt.[114]

Thoth

Aten

Amun

Ra

Osiris

Horus

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Citations[edit]Jump up ^ Allen 2000, pp. 43–45Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 6–7,73^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 11Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 12–13^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 12Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 13–22Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 22Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 113–114Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 23Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 204Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 25–28Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 28–29Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 29Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 31–32Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 29–31Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 32–33Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 33Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 34Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 34–40Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 40–42Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 43Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 43–44Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 44Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 44–45Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 45Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 45–47Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 47–48Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 48Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 49–50Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 172–173Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 52Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 58–60^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 61Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 61–65^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 66Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 230Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 66–67Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 67–68Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 68–69Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 173–174Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 70–76Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 76Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 77Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 145Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 77–78Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 145–146Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 78–79Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 79Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 79–83Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 83Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 84–85Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 85Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 85–86Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 86–88Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 92Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 89–90Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 90Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 90–91^ Jump up to: a b Wilkinson 2003, p. 179^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 91Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 91–92Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 92Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 92–95Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 95–96Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 96–97Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 97–99^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 99Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 99–100Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 156Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 100–101Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 101–102Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 102Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 102–103Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 109–110Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 110–112Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 114–124Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 125Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 128–131Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 132Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 133–135^ Jump up to: a b Wilkinson 2003, p. 164Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 135–137Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 137Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 140–141Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 148–149Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 138–139Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 139–140Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 141–142Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 142–143Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 143–145Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 145–146^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 146Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 146–147Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 147Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 147–148Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 148Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 151Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 151–152^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 154Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 154–155Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 156Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 156–159Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 159Jump up ^ Wilkinson 2003, p. 199Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 161^ Jump up to: a b Hart 2005, p. 162Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 162–163Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 163Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 164Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 165Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 53Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 149–161Jump up ^ Hart 2005, p. 113Jump up ^ Hart 2005, pp. 152–153Works cited[edit]Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7.Hart, George (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-02362-5.Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8.Further reading[edit]Leitz, Christian, ed. (2002). Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen (in German). Peeters. Vol. I: ISBN 90-429-1146-8; Vol. II: ISBN 90-429-1147-6; Vol. III: ISBN 90-429-1148-4; Vol. IV: ISBN 90-429-1149-2; Vol. V: ISBN 90-429-1150-6; Vol. VI: ISBN 90-429-1151-4; Vol. VII: ISBN 90-429-1152-2; Vol. VIII: ISBN 90-429-1376-2.
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