Cultures > Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt

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Background

Lower Egypt is located in Egypt MemphisMemphisMap of Upper Egypt showing important sites that were occupied during the Protodynastic Period of Egypt (clickable map)Deshret, the Red Crown of Lower EgyptMap of Lower Egypt with its historical nomesLower Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: مصر السفلى‎‎ Maṣr El Sofla) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.Contents [hide]1Geography2History3List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt4List of nomes5See also6ReferencesGeography[edit]In ancient times, Pliny the Elder (N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic. Today there are two principal channels that the Nile takes through the river's delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damietta.The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals.The climate in Lower Egypt is milder than that of Upper Egypt owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant.History[edit]Lower Egypt was known as Ta-Mehu which means "land of papyrus." It was divided into twenty districts called nomes, the first of which was at el-Lisht. Because Lower Egypt was mostly undeveloped scrubland, undeveloped for human life and filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes.The capital of Lower Egypt was Memphis. Its patron Goddess was the cobra goddess Wadjet. Lower Egypt was represented by the Low Red Crown Deshret, and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee.By about 3600 BC, neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile River had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.[1] Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization.[2] A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.[2] The Mesopotamian process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.[2]Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process.[2] Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often.[2] During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule.[3]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lower Egypt.List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt[edit]Dynasties of Ancient EgyptAll years (rightmost column) are BC (BCE)Early[show]Old Kingdom[show]First Intermediate[show]Middle Kingdom[show]Second Intermediate[show]New Kingdom[show]Third Intermediate[show]Late Period[show]Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)[show]v t eThe Palermo stone, a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt before Narmer. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions:NameHsekiu[4]Khayu[4]Tiu[4]Thesh[4]Neheb[4]Wazner[4]Mekh[4](destroyed)[4]In contrast the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt: Double Falcon, Crocodile.List of nomes[edit]Part of a series on theHistory of EgyptAll Gizah Pyramids.jpgPrehistoric Egyptpre–3100 BCAncient EgyptEarly Dynastic Period3100–2686 BCOld Kingdom2686–2181 BC1st Intermediate Period2181–2055 BCMiddle Kingdom2055–1650 BC2nd Intermediate Period1650–1550 BCNew Kingdom1550–1069 BC3rd Intermediate Period1069–664 BCLate Period664–332 BCClassical antiquityMacedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt332–30 BCRoman and Byzantine Egypt30 BC–641 ADSasanian Egypt619–629Middle AgesArab Egypt641–969Fatimid Egypt969–1171Ayyubid Egypt1171–1250Mamluk Egypt1250–1517Early modernOttoman Egypt1517–1867French occupation1798–1801Egypt under Muhammad Ali1805–1882Khedivate of Egypt1867–1914Modern EgyptBritish occupation1882–1922Sultanate of Egypt1914–1922Kingdom of Egypt1922–1953Republic1953–presentFlag of Egypt.svg Egypt portalv t eNumberEgyptian NameCapitalModern name of capital siteTranslation1Aneb-HetchIneb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis)Mit RahinaWhite Walls2KhensuKhem (Letopolis)AusimCow's thigh3AhmentImu (Apis)Kom El HisnWest4Sapi-ResPtkhekaTantaSouthern shield5Sap-MehZau (Sais)Sa El HagarNorthern shield6KhasetKhasu (Xois)SakhaMountain bull7A-ment(Hermopolis Parva, Metelis)DamanhurWest harpoon8A-btTjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom)Tell El MaskhutaEast harpoon9AtiDjed (Busiris)Abu Sir BaraAndjeti10Ka-khemHut-hery-ib (Athribis)Banha (Tell Atrib)Black bull11Ka-hesebTaremu (Leontopolis)Tell El UrydamHeseb bull12Theb-kaTjebnutjer (Sebennytos)SamanudCalf and Cow13Heq-AtIunu (Heliopolis)Materiya (suburb of Cairo)Prospering Sceptre14Khent-abtTjaru (Sile, Tanis)Tell Abu SefaEastmost15TehutBa'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva)BaqliyaIbis16KhaDjedet (Mendes)Tell El RubˁFish17SemabehdetSemabehdet (Diospolis Inferior)Tell El BalamunThe throne18Am-KhentPer-Bastet (Bubastis)Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)Prince of the South19Am-PehuDja'net (Leontopolis Tanis)Tell Nebesha or San El HagarPrince of the North20SopduPer-SopduSaft El HinnaPlumed FalconSee also[edit]Upper EgyptMiddle EgyptUpper and Lower EgyptNomes of EgyptGeography of EgyptAncient EgyptReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53.Jump up ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Breasted (1909) p.36

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